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Roma, Eterna Cita (Engl. Rome, Eternal City)! The capital of Italy is located on the rivers Aniene and Tiber, close to the Mediterranean Sea. With a population of almost 4.3 millions (2016), it is the largest city in the country. Rome is also the country's largest and most populated commune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. The Vatican City is an independent country geographically located within the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
The Colosseum or Coliseum, also known as the Flavian Amphitheater (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium; Italian: Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo, is an oval amphitheater in the center of the city of Rome, Italy. Built of concrete and sand, it is the largest amphitheater ever built. The Colosseum is situated just east of the Roman Forum. Construction began under the emperor Vespasian in AD 72, and was completed in AD 80 under his successor and heir Titus. Further modifications were made during the reign of Domitian (81–96). These three emperors are known as the Flavian dynasty, and the amphitheatre was named in Latin for its association with their family name (Flavius).
Rome has three airports: Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport - FCO –commonly known as Fiumincio is the major airport, Giovan-Battista Pastine –commonly known as Ciampino Airport and it handles usually charter flights and European flights including low-cost airlines and Aeroporto dell’ Urbe is used mostly for private flights. Once in Rome you’ll be amazed by the number of places to see: churches, fountains, palaces and much more.
Beginning with the Renaissance, almost all the popes since Nicholas V (1447–55) pursued coherently along four hundred years an architectonic and urbanistic program aimed to make of the city the world's artistic and cultural center.
The Roman Forum
The Roman Forum (Latin: Forum Romanum; Italian: Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum. It was for centuries the center of Roman public life: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial affairs.
Here statues and monuments commemorated the city's great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the most celebrated meeting place in the world, and in all history. Located in the small valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 million sightseers yearly. Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum.
The Roman Kingdom's earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the ancient former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), as well as the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the rise of imperial Rome.
Due to that, Rome became the first of major centers of the Italian Renaissance, and then the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the center of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Its historic center is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.
Monuments and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the world's most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Probably the landmark that everyone knows is the Colosseum, its Latin name Amphitheatrum Flavium was once the place where gladiators fought for their lives and to entertain the emperors and crowds. The churches date back to the 3rd century and you would probably need a vacation dedicated to seeing them if you so wish to see them all.
The oldest church is San Martino ai Monti. Some churches from the 4th century include: San Marcello al Corso, San Marco, and Santa Pudenziana.
The newest church was built in 2003 and is called Dio Padre Misericordioso.
Some very nice places to see are the fountains. Everybody knows about Trevi fountain (Fontana di Trevi), where if you throw in a coin, you shall surely return to Rome.
Trevi Fountain Rome
Other fountains are: Acqua Paola , Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi and Triton Fountain. There are also some museums that need your attention: The Vatican Museums, The Capitoline Museums – founded in 1471 and Galleria Borghese – houses one of the largest collections in the world. The Spanish Steps (Italian: Scalinata di Trinità dei Monti) are a set of steps in Rome, climbing a steep slope between the Piazza di Spagna at the base and Piazza Trinità dei Monti, dominated by the Trinità dei Monti church at the top.
Spanish Steps Rome
The monumental stairway of 135 steps (the slightly elevated drainage system is often mistaken for the first step) was built with French diplomat Étienne Gueffier’s bequeathed funds of 20,000 scudi, in 1723–1725, linking the Bourbon Spanish Embassy, and the Trinità dei Monti church that was under the patronage of the Bourbon kings of France, with its beautiful twin tower church dominating the skyline. The stairway was designed by architects Francesco de Sanctis and Alessandro Specchi.
The Spanish steps unique design and elegance has made it a popular place for artists, painters and poets who were attracted to the place which in return inspired them. The presence of the artist's attracted many beautiful women to the area, aspiring to br models. This in turn, attracted many rich Romans and travelers. The steps became very crowded with people of all kinds of backgrounds.
This tradition, of the Spanish Steps as a meeting place, has lived on ever since and is a popular spot. There are a lot of places to stay, from hostels and one star hotels to historical buildings and five stars hotels. For those who are on a budget trip, a hostel is the best place to spend the nights. One of them is Hostel Star Light and it’s located in the city center, near the Termini station and very close to the Trevi fountain.
Some of the one star hotels include: Hotel Dino – also in the centre of the city, Hotel Gabriele – in the historical center of the city and Hotel Vienesse.
For those who want luxury, there are the five stars hotels: Aldrovandi Palace Hotel – close to Via Veneto, Hotel Hassler –near Trinita' dei Monti Church, to name just two of them. Of course, you can choose from guesthouses, bed & breakfast, country houses, camping and many more, based on what you like and on your budget.